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 THE FIT HEART 

The Way To A Healthy Heart

STRUCTURE OF THE HEART & CIRCULATION

STRUCTURE OF THE HEART

The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood to all the tissues in your body through a network of blood vessels. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from various organs and pumps it through the lungs where it picks up oxygen. The left side of the heart receives the blood containing oxygen and pumps the blood to the rest of your body.

                                            

 

The heart consists of 4 chambers:

  • Right Atrium: The chamber which receives de-oxygenated blood from the body and passes it to the lower chamber, the Right Ventricle.
  • Right VentricleThe chamber which receives de-oxygenated blood from the Right Atrium and passes it to the great vessel, the Pulmonary Artery, from where the blood goes to the lungs.
  • Left AtriumThe chamber which receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and passes it to the lower chamber, the Left Ventricle.
  • Left Ventricle: The chamber which receives oxygenated blood from the Lett Atrium and passes it to the great vessel, the Aorta, from where the blood goes to the body organs.

 

Large vessels (pipe-like) connected to heart:

  • Caval veins (Venae Cavae): These are two large veins (The upper or Superior and lower or Inferior venae cavae) which receive de-oxygenated blood from all over the body and drain it into the right atrium.
  • Pulmonary veinsThese are usually four veins which receive oxygenated blood from the lungs and drain it into the left atrium.
  • Pulmonary artery: This is a large artery which carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
  • Aorta: This is a large artery which carries blood from the left ventricle to the various body organs through its branches.

 

Valves of the heart:

These are like one way doors in the heart which allow only forward flow. They include:

  1. The tricuspid valve: Between Right atrium and Right ventricle.
  2. The pulmonic or pulmonary valveBetween Right ventricle and pulmonary artery.
  3. The mitral valveBetween Left atrium and Left ventricle.
  4. The aortic valveBetween left ventricle and Aorta.

 

The Septae:

This is the dividing wall which separates the two atria and the two ventricles.

  • Interatrial septum: Between the two atria.
  • Interventricular septum: Between the two ventricles.

  

                                                                         

 

 

Conduction system of heart:

As any machine needs power/electricity to run, the same way heart's pumping is also dependent on electricity....Yes, you read it right....ELECTRICITY.....!!!

There are many electric current generating points in the heart, the principal one is the Sino-atrial Node. The electric current at this power station is generated as a result of complex interplay between various electrolytes (Sodium, potassium, calcium etc.) across cell envelop/membrane. From here the current flows in circuit to various parts of the heart to result into effective contraction (pumping). This circuit is called the Conduction System of the heart.

 

                        

 

Blood supply of the heart

Although heart itself works to supply blood to various body organs for their survival and functioning, don't forget that heart itself is an organ and hence needs its own blood supply for survival !!! 

This blood supply of heart is known as the Coronary Artery System. It consists of a "Left Main Coronary artery" and its branches (the major ones are the Left Anterior Descending artery and the Left Circumflex artery)supplying the left side of the heart and the "Right coronary artery" and its branches supplying the right side of the heart.

                                                                       

 

This heart system is a highly sophisticated system with all the components working in complete harmony with each other. Another amazing thing about this system is that this system runs continuously and tirelessly till the complete life of an individual and the moment it stops, this life ends...!!!

 

THE CIRCULATION (The Blood Delivery System!!)

It’s quite similar to the water delivery system in our cities wherein a pump (the Heart) pushes the treated clean water (the oxygenated blood) through the water pipelines (blood vessels- Arteries) so as to reach various houses in the city (body parts). Then, after usage, the dirty water (blood poor in oxygen and rich in Carbon dioxide) comes out of these houses (body parts) through another set of pipelines (the Veins), enters the pump (the heart) again and is then pumped into the water purification plant (the Lungs) where it gets purified (blood becomes rich in oxygen and poor in Carbon dioxide) and then returns to the pump (the Heart) from where it is pumped back into the pipelines (Arteries) to reach the houses (the body parts). This cycles goes on and on in the body and is so efficient that the heart pumps about 280 liters of blood in one hour, 7200 liters in 24 hours, or 2,688,000 liters per year!!